First Aid; CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) Training Guidelines:

What Is CPR?

CPR is a key part of the chain of survival. The chain of survival describes the links which gives best chance of survival to a patient in cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) stands for ;

  • Cardio; Heart.
  • Pulmonary; Lungs.
  • Resuscitation; Revive.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation means reviving the heart and lungs. CPR is a technique used in an emergency, when a person’s heart has stop beating and  their breathing has stopped. Remember the 4 Rs of CPR;

  • Risk;  factors in your life that predispose you to developing heart problems or a stroke.
  • Recognize; how to recognize the signs of a developing medical emergency.
  • React; what to do when you see a developing emergency.
  • Resuscitation; how to do CPR and how to help someone who is choking.

CPR PROCEDURE: How To Perform CPR:

If you find someone collapsed, you can use the mnemonic DR ABC to help you to remember what to do.

D; Danger:

  • Ensure there are no dangers to yourself, other bystanders or the casualty.
  • Ask yourself- why has the casualty collapsed?. Are there any Hazards? Am I at risk?.
  • Danger could be; Moving vehicles, electricity, water, other people and smoke/fire etc.
  • Only help if it is safe to do so.

R; Response:

  • Try and wake the casualty up- are they responsive.
  • Kneel by his/her head, shout loudly in the both ears and tap them on the shoulders.
  • If no response, the casualty is unconscious.
  • This is an emergency situation.
  • Try and attract attention to yourself/the casualty by shouting for help.
  • However, do not leave the casualty.

A; Airway:

  • The air way is the tube which takes air from the mouth/nose to the lungs.
  • When a casualty is unconscious, their tongue can fall backwards and block their airway.
  • This can cause an obstruction and stop the casualty from breathing.
  • To open someone’s airway, place one hand on their forehead and tilt their hear backwards.
  • Then place two fingers on the bony part of their chin lift it.
  • This is known as the ” head tilt” , chin lift” maneuver.

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B; Breathing:

  • Keep your hands on the person’s head/chin.
  • place your cheek above their mouth and look at their chest.
  • Look, Listen and feel for regular breathing for up to 10 seconds.

Irregular shallow gapes is not normal breathing. This is a phenomenon known as ” Agonal breathing” and should be treated as not breathing.

C; CPR Adult CPR:

  • After an ambulance has been called, you should commence CPR.
  • First, you should give 30 chest compressions.
  • Place your hands in the center of a person’s chest, over the breastbone ( Sternum ).
  • Interlock your fingers.
  • Push down 30 times at a rate of 100- 120 compressions/minute.

Chest Compression:

Ensure your elbows are locked and your shoulder positioned above the chest. push down to a depth of about 5cm. Ensure you release fully after each compression.

cpr

Rescue Breaths:

After 30 chest compression, give 2 rescue breaths. Tilt the casualty’s head backwards, lift their chin and then pinch their nose. Make a seal over their mouth and breath if for approximately one second.

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Continue the cycle of 30 chest compression to rescue breaths until help arrives. If there is more than one first aider, swap over doing chest compressions regularly. If a defibrillator arrives it should be used immediately.

Hands Position In CPR:

  • Hands in center of the chest.
  • Lower half of breastbone (sternum).
  • Second hand on the top of the first.
  • Not on lowest part of the breastbone.

cpr procedures

Rate Of CPR:

CPR is should be performed at a rate of 30 chest compression at 100-120 compression per minute allow chest to recoil between compression immediately follow with 2 rescue breaths.

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